This paper reviews the research on equitable mathematics teaching practices that focus on providing fair opportunities to learn for all children. The studies conducted with in‐service teachers are examined in descriptive, integrated and critical ways to explore the differences and similarities across the body of research. Three divergent themes are identified from the literature according to how the mathematical learning is conceptualised: social, cultural and critical. In the first part of the review, the studies are synthesised and also the reflective conversations are presented for each perspective. The second part of the article focuses on the similarities where three convergent themes are identified across the scholarship: (1) gatekeeping primacy of mathematics, (2) regenerating exclusions through psychological registers and (3) positioning teachers as objects of research and subjects of change. These convergent themes make visible the limitations of the literature that need further interrogation. Further research is required to study how these convergent themes are historically emerged, accumulated and still existed in the contemporary practices to expand the teacher education research for equity and social justice.