An Investigation into Durability Aspects of Geopolymer Concretes Based Fully on Construction and Demolition Waste

Ozcelikci E., YILDIRIM G., Alhawat M., Ashour A., ŞAHMARAN M.

International Symposium of the International Federation for Structural Concrete, fib Symposium 2023, İstanbul, Turkey, 5 - 07 June 2023, vol.349 LNCE, pp.377-386 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 349 LNCE
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/978-3-031-32519-9_36
  • City: İstanbul
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.377-386
  • Keywords: chloride penetration, Construction and demolition waste, drying shrinkage, freezing-thawing, geopolymer concrete, sulfate resistance
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The focus of the construction industry has shifted towards the development of alternative, eco-friendly and green construction materials due to the energy-inefficient and carbon-intensive nature of Portland cement (PC) production and aggregate quarrying. Meanwhile, increased number of repetitive re-pair/renovation/maintenance activities and demolition operations for the end-of-life buildings generate significant amounts of construction and demolition waste (CDW). For the purposes of sustainability and upcycling wastes into high-value-added materials with improved greenness, components from CDW streams can be used in producing geopolymer concretes without using PC and natural aggregates, given the rich aluminosiliceous nature of CDW components. The focus of current work is therefore on the analysis of durability of aspects (i.e., drying shrinkage and resistance against sulfate attack, cyclic freezing-thawing, and chloride penetration) of geopolymer concretes made entirely of CDW. Different types of bricks, tile, concrete, and glass were used in mixed form as precursors for geopolymerization while different-size grains of waste concrete were used as recycled aggregates. As alkali activators, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used. In a companion mixture, CDW-based precursors were replaced with slag and class-F fly ash. Results showed that sulfate and cyclic freeze-thaw exposure did not cause any noticeable weight and compressive strength loss in CDW-based geopolymer concretes, while chloride penetration was found comparable to PC-based concrete. While drying shrinkage was found high in entirely CDW-based geopolymer concrete and resulted in surface microcracks, it was possible to lower the drying shrinkage substantially via substitution of CDW-based precursors with fly ash and slag.