This research applied the learning strategies to predict in an effect longitudinal growth of cognitive structure of students in biology. The aim of the research is to assess the effect of activating learning strategies on cognitive structures regarding biology. The research was conducted by using control group design. The sample of research was composed of 60 prospective teachers randomly assigned to the experimental and the control groups. The longitudinal data were collected every 2 weeks and 4 times in total considering the concept maps. The data were quantitatively analysed in terms of the number of concepts, connections and central concepts. Latent growth modelling (LGM) was used to analyse change in cognitive structure over time. The findings suggested that the experimental group did better in cognitive structure than the control group in terms of forming connections and central concepts. Accordingly, teaching students self-regulated learning strategies and providing support in the written material to activate the strategies influence the development of cognitive structure in a positive way in terms of the extent and the integration. Therefore, activation of the use of self-regulated learning strategies in the teaching are thought to contribute to the learning of biology.