Early motor repertoire and developmental function outcomes in infants with West syndrome: a case series


Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/09593985.2023.2208657
  • Journal Name: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ASSIA, BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: Developmental function, early motor repertoire, fidgety movements, general movements, infantile spasm, West syndrome
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background: West syndrome (WS), also known as infantile spasm, is a rare form of severe epilepsy that begins during early infancy. This case series aimed to describe the early motor repertoire and examine the developmental function outcomes of infants with WS. Case Descriptions: Three infants (one female) with WS were assessed for early motor repertoire using the General Movement Assessment (GMA) which determined General Movement Optimality Scores (GMOS) at 4 post-term weeks of age, and Motor Optimality Scores (MOS) at 12 post-term weeks of age. Cognitive, language, and motor development were evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development–Third Edition (Bayley-III) at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Outcomes: At 4-weeks post-term, one infant showed poor repertoire movements, while the other two showed cramped-synchronized movements with their GMOS ranging from 6 to 16 (out of 42). All infants showed sporadic/absent fidgety movements at 12 weeks post-term with their MOS ranging from 5 to 9 (out of 28). All sub-domain scores of Bayley-III were <2 SD at all follow-up assessments, that is <70, indicating severe developmental delay. Conclusion: These infants with WS had less than optimal scores of early motor repertoire, and developmental delay at a later age. Early motor repertoire might be an early sign for developmental function outcome at a later age in this population suggesting the need for additional research.