CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with altered composition and function of gut microbiota. The cause of gut dysbiosis in CKD is multifactorial and encompasses the following: uremic state, metabolic acidosis, slow colonic transit, dietary restrictions of plant-based fiber-rich foods, and pharmacological therapies. Dietary restriction of potassium-rich fruits and vegetables, which are common sources of fermentable dietary fibers, inhibits the conversion of dietary fibers to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are the primary nutrient source for the symbiotic gut microbiota. Reduced consumption of fermentable dietary fibers limits the population of SCFA-forming bacteria and causes dysbiosis of gut microbiota. Gut dysbiosis induces colonic fermentation of protein and formation of gut-derived uremic toxins. In this review, we discuss the roles and benefits of dietary fiber on gut-derived protein-bound uremic toxins and plant-based dietary patterns that could be recommended to decrease uremic toxin formation in CKD patients. Recent studies have indicated that dietary fiber supplementation may be useful to decrease gut-derived uremic toxin formation and slow CKD progression. However, research on associations between adherence of healthy dietary patterns and gut-derived uremic toxins formation in patients with CKD is lacking.