Effects of charcoal-based whitening toothpastes on human enamel in terms of color, surface roughness, and microhardness: an in vitro study.


Clinical oral investigations, vol.25, no.10, pp.5977-5985, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 25 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00784-021-03903-x
  • Journal Name: Clinical oral investigations
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.5977-5985
  • Keywords: Tooth whitening, Whitening toothpaste, Charcoal, Charcoal toothpaste
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Objective Charcoal based oral care products have gained popularity in the last few years. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effects of different charcoal based whitening toothpastes on color, surface roughness and microhardness of human enamel. Materials and methods Forty-eight specimens obtained from human permanent upper incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups(n=12):Group-1:Colgate Total 12(CT); Group-2:Body Kingdom(BK); Group-3:Black is White(BW), Group-4:Colgate optic white(COW). Following 4 days cycle of darkening(2-min chlorhexidine and 60-min black tea per day), a 12- week brushing(twice daily for 1 min)was performed. Color of specimens was measured using a spectrophotometer. A contact type profilometer was used to measure surface roughness (Ra) and Vicker's hardness tester was used for the changes in microhardness(VHN). A representative sample from each group was visualized by SEM. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA, Welch, Fisher's, Kruskall-Wallis, Wilcoxon Sign Rank and Paired t-tests(p<0.05). Results After 12- week brushing, no differences were found among the groups in terms of color change(p=0.989). All toothpastes tested showed no clinically acceptable whitening performances. A substantial increase in surface roughness was found in all groups, except BW(p<0.05). An increase was found in microhardness with CT(p=0.013), while no changes were found with BK, BW and COW(p>0.05).Only few scratches were observed on the enamel surfaces by SEM evaluations. Conclusion Twelve week brushing with charcoal based whitening toothpastes and a regular fluoridated toothpaste presented similar effects in color of enamel. Surface roughness was increased(except BW) while microhardness was not affected(except CT) with charcoal based whitening toothpastes.