The objective of this study was to evaluate the smoking status and the perception of smoking of an Anatolian High School students (Prep, phase I and II) located in the area of Keçiören Primary Health Care Center, Ankara. Four hundred and ninety seven students participated in this cross-sectional study (Participation frequency=90.5). Fifty point seven percent of the 497 students were males (n=252), and 45.3% of them were younger than 16 years of age (n=225). The mean age of the students was 15.88(±0.93). The frequency of smoking was 4.4% among males (n=11), and 0.4% among females (n=l). Students were asked to predict about life expectancy of smokers, non smokers and passive smokers. Results revelaed that smokers were expected to live on the avarage 15 years less as compared to the non-smokers. Similarly, the ones who were exposed to passive smoking were expected to live on the avarage 10 years less compared to the non-smokers. Perceptions of the smoker students about short and long term of health effects of smoking differed. Some of them thought that they were personally at risk for short-term effects of smoking such as respiratory diseases. The picture changed for the long-term and chronic hazardous effects of smoking. Almost one out of three students (27.3%) did not perceive lung cancer as a hazard for her/his body. The perception of the students about risks of smoking was found to be insufficient. Training programs for the students in collaboration with the school staff are recommended to be implemented to the routine curriculum.