COVID-19 Vaccination Scenarios: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Turkey

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Hagens A., İnkaya A. Ç. , Yildirak K., Sancar M., van der Schans J., Acar Sancar A., ...More

VACCINES, vol.9, no.4, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/vaccines9040399
  • Journal Name: VACCINES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: COVID-19, cost-effectiveness, vaccination, Turkey, dynamic modeling


As of March 2021, COVID-19 has claimed the lives of more than 2.7 million people worldwide. Vaccination has started in most countries around the world. In this study, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of strategies for COVID-19 vaccination for Turkey compared to a baseline in the absence of vaccination and imposed measures by using an enhanced SIRD (Susceptible, Infectious, Recovered, Death) model and various scenarios for the first year after vaccination. The results showed that vaccination is cost-effective from a health care perspective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 511 USD/QALY and 1045 USD/QALY if vaccine effectiveness on transmission is equal or reduced to only 50% of effectiveness on disease, respectively, at the 90% baseline effectiveness of the vaccine. From a societal perspective, cost savings were estimated for both scenarios. Other results further showed that the minimum required vaccine uptake to be cost-effective would be at least 30%. Sensitivity and scenario analyses, as well as the iso-ICER curves, showed that the results were quite robust and that major changes in cost-effectiveness outcomes cannot be expected. We can conclude that COVID-19 vaccination in Turkey is highly cost-effective or even cost-saving.