This study investigated the effect of roasting (150 degrees C for 30 min) and storage (12 months at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 25 degrees C in vacuum package), conditions of which are generally applied in the industry and markets, on the formation of Maillard reaction and sugar degradation products, namely dicarbonyl compounds, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, N-epsilon-fructosyllysine, and N-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine in Tombul and Levant hazelnuts. Roasting increased all dicarbonyl compounds significantly (p < 0.05). The concentration of methylglyoxal was the highest while 1-deoxyglucosone was the lowest in roasted hazelnuts. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and N-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine also increased significantly (p < 0.05) with roasting while furosine decreased. Roasting changed the progress of the Maillard reaction from the early stage to the advanced stage. On the other hand, there were no significant changes (p > 0.05) in the concentration of Maillard reaction and sugar degradation products independent of the storage conditions or time and hazelnut variety, except for glyoxal, diacetyl, and 1-deoxyglucosone. Therefore, neither 5-hydroxymethylfurfural nor furosine is suggested as a storage marker of the Maillard reaction and sugar degradation.