Evaluation of the effects of environmental factors and eating habits on exfoliation syndrome and glaucoma in a Turkish population


European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.34, no.1, pp.168-174, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/11206721231178055
  • Journal Name: European Journal of Ophthalmology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.168-174
  • Keywords: Eating habits, environmental factors, exfoliation syndrome, exfoliative glaucoma, residential feature, sunlight exposure
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: This study aimed to assess the possible effect of environmental factors and eating habits on patients with the exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliative glaucoma (XFG) in a Turkish population. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to 1,000 individuals, including 290 patients with XFS, 210 patients with XFG, and 500 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Sociodemographic characteristics, home type and warming methods, living and working conditions (indoor–outdoor), dietary habits based on the the guidance of Turkey Dietary Guidelines, (Determination of Nutritional Status Report and Turkey National Nutrition and Health Survey) and using sunglasses were evaluated. The chi-square test, Student t test, and analysis of variance were used for the statistical analysis with SPSS v. 23.0 software. Results: The case–control groups were matched during data collection, and age and sex distribution in groups was analyzed; however, no difference was found. The average years and hours spent outdoor were statistically different between case and control groups (P < 0.05). The disease risk among individuals wearing sunglasses was 2.74 times less than that among those who did not wear sunglasses. Individuals born in the city had 1.46 times lower risk. Also, living out of the city until the age of 12 years increased the risk of getting the disease 1.36 times. In addition, while living in an apartment decreased the risk of disease, using a stove increased. The control groups had more healthy eating habits than the case groups. Conclusion: This case–control study showed that time spent outdoors, wearing sunglasses, home type, heating method, and eating habits might be associated with XFS and XFG.